miércoles, 18 de noviembre de 2009



ablutions fountain = fuente para purificarse
agriculture = agricultura
Allah = Alá
barbarian = bárbaros
basileus = basileus
Byzantine = Bizantino
caliph = califa
carolingian = carolingio
civilization = civilización
conflict = conflicto
county = condado
craftsmanship = artesanía
dome = cúpula
East-West Schism = Cisma entre Oriente y Occidente
emperor = emperador
gold = oro
Germanic = germánico
Greek = griego
Greek-Cross Plan = planta de cruz griega
Hegira = Hégira
Icon = icono
invention = invención
Islam = Islam
Jihad = jihad o Guerra Santa
Justinian Code = Código Justiniano
Koran = corán
Latin = Latín
march = marzo
Mecca = Meca
Middle Ages = Edad Media
mihrab = mihrab o nicho
minaret = minarete
monotheistic = monoteísta
mosaic = mosaico
Muslim = musulmán
pillar = pilar
polytheistic = politeísta
prayer hall = sala de oración
quibla = quibla o muro de la sala de oración
Ramadan = Ramadán
Roman Empire = Imperio Romano
silverwork = platería
souk = zoco o mercado
trade = comercio
treaty = tratado


abbot = abad
absolute poverty = pobreza absoluta
armour = armadura
army = ejército
beg = mendigar
bishop = obispo
clergy = clérigo
cognomen = apellido
convent = convento
court = corte
crop = cosecha, cultivo
demesne = dominio, propiedad
diocese = diócesis
estate = estado
excommunicate = excomulgar
fallow = en barbecho
feudalism = feudalismo
fief = feudo
forest = bosque
freeman = hombre libre
friar = fraile
habit = hábito
homage = homenaje
knight = caballero
lord = señor
manor = señorío
meditation = meditación
miniature = miniatura
monastey = monasterio
monk = monje
noble = noble
nun = monja
order = orden
page = paje
parish = parroquia
peasant = campesino
Pope = Papa
prayer = oración
priest = cura
prívate army = ejército privado
privileged estate = estado privilegiado
regular clergy = clero regular
religious order = orden religiosa
rule = regla
secular clergy = clero secular
self-sufficient = autosuficiente
serf = siervo
squire = escudero
superior = superior
tapestry = tapiz
tithe = diezmo
toll = cuota
tournament = torneo
vassal = vasallo
village = pueblo



• Allah - Muslim name for the one and only God.
• Byzantine Empire – A continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395.
• Carolingian Empire – Realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians.
• Germanic - A branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
• Hegira - The flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
• Islam - The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad.
• Justinian Code - A document that modernized Roman law.
• mosaics - Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass.
• monotheistic - Believing that there is only one god.
• Ramadan - A fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of Ramadan.
• Huns – Nomadic people who invaded Europe in the 4th century.
• Basileus - A ruler of the eastern Roman Empire.
• Bizantine Orthodox Church – The church of Byzantine Empire after the Justinian´s kingdom.
• East-West Schism – The separation between Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church in 1054.
• Icons - A religious painting in oil on a small wooden panel that is venerated.
• Treaty of Verdum – It was a treaty by the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, son and successor of Charlemagne, which divided the territories of the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms.
• Missi dominici - The name given to the officials commissioned by the Frankish kings and emperors to supervise the administration of their dominions.
• Counties - A region created by territorial division for the purpose of local government.


• Vikings- any of the Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of Europe from 850 to 1100 approximately.
• Magyars – They came from the steppes of Asia and they invaded the Eastern Europe (from 850 to 1100 approximately) and founded the kingdom of Hungary.
• Saracens – They were Muslims pirates who attacked the Mediterranean coasts of Europe from 850 to 1100 approximately.
• Serf - a person who worked in the land and owned by the feudal lord in the Feudal times.
• Nobles – they were the knights and their families in the Medieval society. Their duty was to defend the population.
• Fief or manor – the land that the nobles received in exchange for helping to the king in the Feudal times.
• Vassals – the barons who governed in the king´s name in exchange for a fief or manor under feudalism.
• Paid homage – It was a ceremony where the vassals swore allegiance to the king.
• Court – it was formed by a group of clergy, soldiers and lawyers. They helped the king to govern.
• Demesne – a part of the land on the manor that used the lord. Everything grown there was his.
• Clergy – they were formed by priests and monks. They had to pray for the spiritual salvation of the people.
• Privileged states – they were the clergy and the nobles. They had many advantages.
• Pope – he was the head of the Catholic Church in Rome. He had great influence.
• Order of Saint Benedict – it was the most important religious order in the Early Middle Ages.
• Regular clergy – they were member of religious orders.
• Knight – he was a noble who fought in wartime.
• Tithe – it was the 10% of the harvest that the freemen peasants paid to the Church.
• Fallow – every year the peasants didn’t cultivate a part of their land.
• Self-sufficient – he was a peasant who grew food, made clothes and furniture and built their houses.

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